Hydroelectric Generating Unit Working Principle
The energy conversion process of a hydroelectric generating unit is divided into two stages: first, the water energy lost by the water turbine is converted into mechanical energy, and then the mechanical energy of the hydraulic turbine is converted into electric energy by a generator. The specific process is: under the impact of the water flow, The turbine begins to rotate, converting the potential energy of the water into mechanical energy; the turbine drives the coaxially connected generator to rotate. Under the action of the excitation current, the rotating rotor drives the excitation magnetic field to rotate, and the stator winding of the generator cuts the excitation magnetic field line therein. Inductive electromotive force produces an electromagnetic braking torque on the rotor that is opposite to its direction of rotation while outputting electrical energy. Since the water flow acts on the turbine without interruption, the rotational torque obtained by the turbine from the water flow is used to overcome the electromagnetic braking torque generated on the rotor of the motor. When the two torques reach equilibrium, the hydroelectric generating set will have a constant speed. Operation, stable power generation, energy conversion. Therefore, turbines and generators are the two most critical components in a hydroelectric generating unit.